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Professor of International Relations at King’s College London and Director of Research at Observer Research Foundation (ORF), New Delhi.

India’s Nuclear Revolution and Military Strategy: A Work in Progress

On May 11, 1998, India declared itself a nuclear weapon state by conducting a series of tests in the Thar desert. Under Jawaharlal Nehru and Homi Bhabha, India laid the foundation of an elaborate nuclear science programme in 1948, just a year after its Independence. Prime Minister (PM) Indira Gandhi conducted a peaceful nuclear explosion in May 1974. Yet, India took almost five decades to embrace nuclear weapons. No other country in the nuclear age gestated on its nuclear weapon-making potential for so long.

Increased Diplomacy Challenges: India as SCO Host

On 28 April, New Delhi hosted a Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) member countries’ defence ministers conclave to discuss regional peace and security, counterterrorism efforts and effective multilateralism. The conclave, chaired by India’s defence minister Rajnath Singh, saw the in-person participation of his counterparts from Russia, China, Iran, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The special defence advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan joined virtually.