Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020: Managing the Bolstering Consumer Rights

Riya Rajvanshi


With a primary focus on consumer protection, the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020 created an extensive structure for managing the environment of online business. It is a crucial step towards regulating the e-commerce industry and aims to protect consumers’ rights and interests in the online market. These regulations cover a broad range of clauses, such as those pertaining to data protection, openness, product quality, and dispute settlement. They work to make sure that e-commerce platforms uphold fairness, accountability, and moral standards while giving customers convenient ways to voice complaints.

The adoption of these regulations is in keeping with a larger global trend to bolster consumer protection laws in the quickly developing field of Internet commerce. These rules signify a significant shift towards bolstering consumer rights and confidence in online shopping, acknowledging the growing importance of e-commerce in contemporary consumer markets.


The Consumer Protection (E-commerce) Rules, 2020 were introduced by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution in India as a comprehensive framework to control the expanding e-commerce industry. By strengthening consumer rights and establishing transparency in online transactions, these regulations act as a safety net. One of these regulations’ key requirements is that e-commerce platforms provide comprehensive product information, including information on the product’s place of origin, the seller, and return procedures.

In addition, they urge that e-commerce companies set up efficient systems for resolving concerns from customers right away. The laws’ strict position against fake and fraudulent goods makes them an important component, making e-commerce marketplaces more responsible for any such goods offered on their platforms. 

The regulations also prohibit deceptive business practices, such as false advertising and unjustified pricing manipulation. The regulations emphasize the importance of data security and the need to safeguard customer data privacy. E-commerce businesses must ensure that product descriptions are accurate and that their terms and conditions are clear, including their stated return and refund procedures.

Key features  

The Consumer Protection (E-commerce) Rules, 2020, introduced by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution in India, are designed to regulate and protect consumers in the e-commerce sector. These rules establish a framework to ensure fair practices and transparency in online transactions. Some key highlights include:

1. Product Information: E-commerce platforms are mandated to provide comprehensive product information, including details about the country of origin, seller information, and return policies.

2. Grievance Redressal: E-commerce entities are required to establish efficient grievance redressal mechanisms to address consumer complaints promptly.

3. Counterfeit Products: The rules impose stricter liability on e-commerce platforms for selling counterfeit or fake products, enhancing consumer protection.

4. Unfair Trade Practices: These regulations prohibit deceptive trade practices, such as misleading advertisements and influencing product prices unfairly.

5. Data Protection: Emphasis is placed on safeguarding consumer data, ensuring its privacy and security during online transactions.

6. Transparency: E-commerce platforms are expected to provide clear terms and conditions, including return and refund policies, and ensure the accuracy of product descriptions.


The Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2020 were introduced in India to regulate e-commerce platforms and protect the rights of consumers. These rules aimed to address issues such as counterfeit products, misleading advertising, and data privacy concerns in the e-commerce sector.This demonstrates the government’s commitment to ensuring a safer and more reliable environment for online shoppers.

Due to these Rules, e-commerce platforms now have much more obligations to their customers. The implementation and application of the Rules, their legality as they pertain to foreign entities, the obligations placed on Platforms that go beyond the buyer-seller relationship, their applicability to B2B platforms, and the types of digital product

offerings that fall under their purview are all questions that need to be addressed. Nevertheless, these Rules are not perfect.

Hence, even though these Rules are a welcome step in ensuring the interest of the Consumers, the Rules still leave some ambiguity regarding certain factors. Therefore, these Rules are a boon for all the consumers who were affected by a lack of these regulations and a bane for the Platforms scrambling to implement them.

In order to answer some of the questions that were raised in accordance with these Rules, the Ministry released a Notification dated May 17, 2021, introducing the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) (Amendment) Rules, 2021 which introduced the requirement for a company outside India or company having an office, branch or agency outside India, controlled by a person resident in India, it shall appoint a nodal officer or an alternate senior designated functionary who is an Indian resident to ensure that the provisions of the act and the Rules are being followed and abided by.


E-commerce, or the buying and selling of goods and services through online platforms, is a rapidly expanding industry.  The retail industry in India is largely unorganized.  By 2021, organized retail (physical stores) will account for 10% of the retail market, compared to e-commerce’s 3% share. 

The following advantages are anticipated to result from e-commerce: 

(i) Greater consumer choice

(ii) lowering obstacles to entry for new businesses (facilitating simpler internet customer discovery)

(iii) increases in the sector’s productivity and competitiveness.

Certain requirements for e-commerce firms are laid forth in the 2020 Rules and the proposed modifications, which are different from those for comparable entities in physical retail.  These include demands for a grievance procedure, the appointment of Certain requirements for e-commerce firms are laid forth in the 2020 Rules and the proposed modifications, which are different from those for comparable entities in physical retail.  These include demands for a grievance procedure, the appointment of specific individuals to monitor compliance and limitations on connected parties and allied businesses.

Emerging Issues 

Consumer protection in e-commerce does face some new issues, though.  In regards to e-commerce, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2017) said

(i) The transaction’s impersonal nature erodes the trust between service providers and customers, making them more vulnerable;

 (ii) information asymmetry is more pronounced, 

(iii) Consumers are more susceptible to misleading and deceptive behavior online, 

(iv) Consumers may have trouble contacting providers or finding a way to communicate with businesses regarding liability and arrangements for delivery, return, and exchange of goods, 

(v) there are higher risks with data protection and privacy, 

(vi) there may be issues of enforceability in case of cross-border transactions.

Online marketplaces, which serve as a middleman between buyers and sellers in transactions, have grown in importance in e-commerce.  Multiple buyers and sellers are brought together on the same platform by online marketplaces.   They provide customers with additional options to pick from and give sellers the chance to connect with more customers.  Depending on how involved they are in managing inventories, facilitating payments, and guaranteeing delivery, safety, or the caliber of goods or services, their function in a transaction may change. In comparison to conventional types of commerce, the aforementioned difficulties may call for certain adjustments in how consumer protection is handled in the case of e-commerce.

Way forward 

The Consumer Protection E-Commerce Rules, 2020 are anticipated to have more stringent rules and improved enforcement methods. We can expect the following in the upcoming years:

1. A Greater Focus on Data Privacy: Due to the growing significance of data in e-commerce transactions, there may be a greater emphasis on data privacy and protection.

2. Transparency and Fair Practises:To guarantee that consumers have access to accurate pricing, product information, and explicit terms of service, the e-commerce sector must adhere to strict transparency and fair business standards. E-commerce platforms should give detailed descriptions of their products, make their terms and conditions clear to customers, and reveal any additional fees or costs. This guarantees that online shoppers can make educated judgments when making purchases and helps to increase their trust and confidence.

3. Prevention of Counterfeit Products: To protect consumer interests, stricter regulations may be put in place to stop the selling of fake or inferior goods.

4. Consumer Redressal Mechanisms: As regulations change, customers may have access to more efficient channels for resolving complaints, such as online dispute platforms.

5. Cross-Border Transactions: As cross-border e-commerce expands, rules may be created to solve problems with global transactions, such as import taxes and penalties.

6. Sustainability and Ethical Practises: Consumer protection should include requirements that e-commerce platforms use ethical and sustainable methods for product sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery.

Consumer expectations, the development of new technology, and the need to strike a balance between promoting innovation and safeguarding the welfare of consumers will all likely have an impact on how consumer protection laws in e-commerce will develop in the future. These laws will probably change to reflect how online purchasing is developing and the difficulties that come with it.


Written by : Riya Rajvanshi is a Research Intern at IMPRI.

Disclaimer: All views expressed in the article belong solely to the author and not necessarily to the organisation.

Acknowledgment : Author would like to thank Abhivyakti Mishra,Tanu Paliwal, Liya Jomon and Samprikta Banerjee for their kind comments and suggestions to improve the article.

Posted by Samprikta Banerjee, research intern at IMPRI.

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  • Samprikta Banerjee

    IMPRI, a startup research think tank, is a platform for pro-active, independent, non-partisan and policy-based research. It contributes to debates and deliberations for action-based solutions to a host of strategic issues. IMPRI is committed to democracy, mobilization and community building.

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