How to Carry out an Empirical Project: A Step-by-Step Approach

Session Report
Divyansh Dwivedi

IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute conducted Data Analytics for Policy Research, an immersive pre winter school program, and a one month immersive online hands on certificate training course. On Day 2 of the programme, our second speaker, Dr Soumyadip Chattopadhyay took a session on How to Carry out an Empirical Project: A Step-by-Step Approach.

The speaker initiated the session by letting participants aware of the nuances of an empirical project. He told that, embarking on an empirical project requires a systematic approach to ensure rigor and reliability in research outcomes.

This session report outlines a step-by-step guide for conducting an empirical project, providing researchers with a roadmap to navigate the complexities of empirical research.

Dr Soumyadip Chattopadhyay further shifted his attention to what and how an empirical project should be approached. A pointwise analysis of the discussion is listed below,

  • Define Research Questions and Objectives:

The foundation of any empirical project lies in clearly defining research questions and objectives. These should be specific, measurable, and relevant, guiding the entire research process.

  • Conduct Literature Review:

A thorough literature review helps identify existing research gaps and informs the theoretical framework. This step is crucial for understanding the current state of knowledge and framing the research within a broader context.

  • Develop a Theoretical Framework:

Build a theoretical framework that serves as the conceptual backbone of the study. This framework establishes the relationships between variables and provides a basis for hypothesis formulation.

  • Formulate Hypotheses:

Based on the theoretical framework, formulate clear and testable hypotheses. These hypotheses should align with the research questions and guide the empirical investigation.

  • Choose Research Design and Methodology:

Select an appropriate research design and methodology that aligns with the research objectives. Whether experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational, the chosen design should allow for the collection of relevant data.

  • Data Collection:

Implement the chosen data collection methods systematically. Ensure data quality and reliability by employing standardized tools, clear instructions, and adequate sampling techniques.

  • Data Analysis:

Utilize statistical techniques relevant to the research design to analyze collected data. Whether quantitative or qualitative, the analysis should address the research questions and test the formulated hypotheses.

  • Interpret Results:

Interpret the results of the data analysis in the context of the research questions and hypotheses. Discuss the implications of the findings and their significance in relation to existing literature.

  • Draw Conclusions:

Draw conclusions based on the interpretation of results. Clearly state the implications of the study and how it contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

  • Discuss Limitations:

Acknowledge and discuss the limitations of the study. Addressing limitations enhances the transparency and credibility of the research.

  • Provide Recommendations:

Offer practical recommendations for future research or real-world applications based on the study’s findings. This step contributes to the ongoing discourse in the field.

  • Write the Research Report:

Compile all findings, analyses, and discussions into a comprehensive research report. Adhere to academic writing standards and guidelines, ensuring clarity and coherence.

The Final Approach:

The speaker, while discussing about what is the correct approach of carrying out an empirical project, mentioned some crucial points, all of which have been briefly discussed below.

Formulation of questions:

Clearly define the research questions that aims to answer. Ensure they are focused and directly aligned with the objectives of the empirical project. This clarity will guide the entire research process.

   – What specific research questions a researcher is trying to answer with this empirical project?

   – Are these questions clear, focused, and aligned with the project’s objectives?

Loopholes in relevance of Literature:

Evaluate existing research relevant to the project. Identify gaps in the literature that the study intends to address. This step helps to position the work within the broader context and contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

   – What existing research is relevant to my empirical project?

   – Are there gaps in the literature that my project aims to address?

Foundation of project:

Establish a theoretical foundation that guides the empirical study. Understand how this framework informs the relationships between variables in the research. This foundation provides a conceptual basis for the study.

   – What theoretical foundation will guide my empirical study?

   – How does the chosen framework inform the relationships between variables?

Thorough Thesis:

Clearly articulate the hypotheses based on your chosen theoretical framework. Ensure these hypotheses are testable and directly align with the research questions formulated. This step forms the basis for the empirical testing.

   – What hypotheses am I formulating based on the theoretical framework?

   – Are these hypotheses testable and aligned with the research questions?

Roadmap of Research:

Select an appropriate research design that suits the project’s objectives. Define the methods for data collection and justify why they are the most suitable for the study. This provides a roadmap for conducting the research.

   – What research design is most suitable for my project?

   – What methods will I employ for data collection, and why are they appropriate?

Sampling of sources:

Clearly outline how to select participants or subjects for the study. Ensure that the chosen sampling method is representative of the population under investigation. This enhances the generalizability of the findings.

   – How will I select participants or subjects for my study?

   – Is the chosen sampling method representative of the population under investigation?


Summarize the conclusions that can be drawn from the study. Discuss how findings contribute to the broader field of study. This step highlights the significance of the research in advancing knowledge.

    – What conclusions can be drawn from the study?

    – How do the findings contribute to the broader field of study?

Ethical Considerations:

Identify and address any ethical concerns related to data collection. Clearly ensure the privacy and confidentiality of participants. This ensures that the research is conducted responsibly and ethically.

    – Have I considered and addressed any ethical concerns related to data collection?

    – How will I ensure the privacy and confidentiality of participants?


Plan how to communicate the findings in a research report or presentation. Identify the target audience and choose the most suitable format for sharing results. This step ensures that the research has a meaningful impact by reaching the right audience in an understandable way.

    – How will I communicate my findings effectively in a research report or presentation?

    – Who is the target audience, and what is the most suitable format for sharing results?


Conducting an empirical project demands meticulous planning and execution. This step-by-step guide provides readers with a structured approach to navigate the complexities of empirical research, fostering robust and credible outcomes. Following these steps ensures that the research process is systematic, transparent, and contributes meaningfully to the academic or practical domain under investigation, sir added. The session carried out by sir was an enlightening one. The session ending with moderator thanking the speaker with a vote of thanks.

Posted by Chaitanya Deshpandea Research Intern at IMPRI.

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